APPLICATIONS

Plant Sciences

 
 

- Plant Stress Factors -

Drought, extreme temperatures, chemical pollutants, salinity, pests, disease, and waterlogging are a few adverse factors affecting a plants ability to optimally function. Using NMT, scientists now have the ability to research how plants regulate flux activities of specific ions and molecules.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Plant response to stress conditions
  • Physiological regulation mechanisms of signal transduction pathways
  • Screening of the stress-resistant varieties of crops

 

Examples:

(1) NMT reveals the mechanism causing one plant species to have a higher salt resistance than another. 

 

Sun J, et al. Plant Physiology, 2009, 149: 1141-1153

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(2) NMT directly measured the PM H+-ATPase activities via the H+ flux.


Yang YQ, et al. Plant Cell, 2010, 22: 1313 - 1332.

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- Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants -

 

Cellular homeostasis, and thus cellular health and longevity, rely on the efficient exchange between ions/molecules and the external environment. Factors including leaf morphology, mesophyll cell growth and light intensity all directly impact the capability of photosynthesis.

 

Plants respire by consuming O2 then producing energy in the form of glucose. This energy is stored by maintaining a proton (H+) gradient across the plasma membrane. Therefore, being able to measure ionic/molecular flux directly, non-invasively, in situ, in vivo, and in real time makes NMT an ideal tool to study both photosynthesis and respiration in plants.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Mechanism of Photosynthesis
  • Mechanism of Respiration in Plants
  • Screening of Plants with High Photosynthesis Efficiency

 

Examples:

(1) Using NMT, extracellular oxygen and proton fluxes from Spirogyra grevilleana were measured. When the cell was illuminated, oxygen showed a net efflux and protons showed a net influx . These measurements provided a new insight in our understanding of basic cellular physiology in plant photosynthesis.

PorterfieldDM and Smith PJS. Protoplasma, 2000, 212: 80-88

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(2) Using NMT, extracellular oxygen and proton fluxes from pollen tube were measured. O2 influxes and H+ effluxes were detected in the region of condensed mitochondria.

Xu Y, et al. Journal of integrative plant biology, 2006, 48: 823-831.

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- Development and its Regulations -

 

Plant growth and development is a complex process, accompanied by active metabolism and exchanges of various substances with the outside world. It starts from seed germination, root, leaf differentiations, growth and maturation, flowering, reproduction, and finally aging and death. Therefore, detection of fluxes of H+, Ca2+, K+, Cl-, Mg2 +, and O2 provides an indispensable way to understand the plant growth and development and how they are regulated.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Study the mechanisms of regulation of plant development
  • Study the roles of auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, ethylene and other plant hormones
  • Study stress phenomena in plant development
  • Signal transduction
  • Looking for mechanisms to promote the rapid growth and development of crops

 

Examples:

(1) Ca2+ influxes were affected by NO stimulator or suppressor

Wang Yuhua, et al. New Phytologist, 2009, 182: 851-862.

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(2) Clfluxes are correlated with pollen tube growth

Laura Zonia, et al. Plant Cell, 2002, 14: 2233-2249

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- Microbial Interactions -

 

To study the interactions between microbes and plants, microbes and microbes, and microbes and other organisms it is crucial to understand symbiotic, antagonistic and parasitic relationships. Since most of the interactions are mediated by activities of various ions and molecules, NMT, which can non-invasively detect minute dynamic fluxes of these ions/molecules in real time, is an innovative tool to uncover these interaction processes.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Mechanism of plant and microbial interactions
  • Plant signal transduction in fungal infection process
  • Plant mycorrhizal study
  • Plant nitrogen fixation
  • Allelopathy
  • Fungal development

 

Examples:

(1) Characteristics of H+ fluxes during fungal development, and are subject to the regulation of nutrient absorption

Ramos AC,et al. New Phytologist, 2008, 178: 177-188.

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(2) Ca2+effluxes present after infected by P. syringae pv syringae

 

Nemchinov LG, et al. Plant Cell and Physiology, 2008, 49: 40-46.

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- Signal Transductions -

 

Mycorrhizal is a typical host plant - fungal symbiotic interactions, plant nutrient uptake and growth are accelerated by fungal infection, which is also dependent on the pH.

 

Example:

Ramos AC, et al. New Phytologist, 2009, 181: 448-462.

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- Plant Nutrition -

 

In order to survive and grow, plants need a large number of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, and other nutrients from the environment. These nutrients are often in the forms of NH4+, of NO3-, K,+ influxes near the surface of the roots. Meanwhile, fluxes of other ions and/or molecules, such as Ca2 +, H+, and O2 are also important to regulate the nutrient's absorption process.

 

NMT is a vital tool to study plant nutrition absorption and regulation mechanisms because not only can it measure NH4+, NO3-, of K+, Ca2 + , O2, and H+ but it also provides a way to study them in-situ, in vivo, in real time, and theoretically no restrictions to the size of your samples.

 

Specific Areas of Study:

  • Mechanism of crop nutrient absorption
  • Looking for substances that can regulate nutrient absorption
  • Screening crops
  • Evaluation of the effect of fertilizer
  • Develop guidance of rational fertilization process

 

Examples:

(1) Periodical oscillations of H+, K+ and Ca2+ absorptions have been found in the roots of wheat

ShabalaS, et al. Functional Plant Biology, 2002, 29, 595–605.

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(2) NH4+ and NO3- absorptions are regulated by pH

Garnett TP, et al. Plant and Soil, 2001, 236: 55–62.

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(3) Different effects on NO3- and NH4+absorptions by increase of external on NO3- and NH4+

Fang YY, et al. Annals of Botany, 2007, 99: 365–370.

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